Charleston High School Athletic Coaching Handbook


(Last updated: )


Charleston High School Athletic Program Vision Statement

Through providing opportunities for healthy competition, Charleston High School interscholastic athletics strives to foster leadership, self-discipline, academic improvement, and a positive self-concept within each student-athlete.



This handbook was designed to aid coaches in the preparation, leadership, and maintenance of a quality experience for the youth who participate on Charleston High Schoolís athletic teams.Since the author has taken into account general administrative and pedagogical needs of coaches of all sports teams in our school, this handbook does not cover every situation or problem that may arise during the course of a particular coachís experience.Because this handbook is at its developmental infancy, the author welcomes coachesí suggestions that are aimed at improving its content in order to make this handbook an immediately useful tool and resource to help our coaching staff provide the best interscholastic program possible.Suggestions are welcomed at


Statement of Board of Education Interest

The Charleston High School (CHS) interscholastic athletic program shall be conducted in accordance with existing Board of Education policies, rules, and regulations.While the Board of Education takes great pride in winning, it does not condone ďwinning at any costĒ and discourages any and all pressures that might tend to neglect good sportsmanship and good mental health.At all times, the athletic program must be conducted in such a way so as to justify it as an educational activity.


Chain of Command

In accordance with Board Policy and in order to maintain effective communication among the many adults who have varying degrees of interest in and/or authority over the athletic program, a chain of command is set forth.Work duplication, misunderstandings, progress delays, disappointment, and overall ineffectiveness are too often the result of people who bypass the chain of command in order to pursue perceived unmet needs.Coaches are to approach others with needs that relate only to their roles.For example, coaches should approach the athletic secretary for clerical needs and approach the athletic director with administrative needs.Likewise, assistant coaches should approach their respective head coaches, not the principal, with issues that pertain to their respective athletic programís needs.


Roles of School Personnel in Relation to Athletics


The Board of Education approves recommendations of the Superintendent of Schools regarding policy, budget, and staffing of the athletic program.It also directs the Superintendent of Schools to review policies and practices of the athletic program.


The Superintendent of Schools is the employee who is ultimately responsible for all phases of the athletic program. He/She delegates his/her authority for the administration of the interscholastic athletic program through the high school principal to the athletic director.


The High School Principal is responsible for all activities affecting students in his/her building.He/She delegates his/her authority to direct the interscholastic athletic program through the athletic director.


The Athletic Director is responsible for direct implementation and interpretation of the policies of the Illinois High School Association (IHSA), the Board of Education, Charleston High School, and the Apollo Conference, as outlined in the respective manuals, handbooks, by-laws, and sport regulations of these entities.


The Athletic Secretary fulfills the clerical needs of the athletic office.He/She serves as the primary contact for initiating communication between the athletic director and various stakeholders.He/She also maintains schedules of facility usage and contests, files of contest contracts, officialsí contracts, student eligibility, and others as directed by the athletic director.


The Event Manager or Supervisor supervises activity/athletic events as assigned by the athletic director.He/She may assist in coordinating and scheduling of visiting teams, transportation, cash boxes, officials, workers, and others as needed.He/She may assist in the organization and operation of tournament, invitational, and special events.


The Head Coach is entirely responsible for the guidance of students in their charge.He/She instructs athletes in the fundamental skills, strategy and physical training necessary for them to realize a degree of individual and team success. He/She also models and instructs in a way that will foster leadership, self-discipline, academic improvement, and a positive self-concept within each student-athlete.†† He/She also works within the framework of the goals of the school system, the policies and procedures of the IHSA, the Board of Education, Charleston High School, and the Apollo Conference, as outlined in the respective manuals, handbooks, by-laws, and sport regulations of these entities.


Assistant Coaches fulfill the aims and objectives of the sport program as outlined by the head coach and school administration.They assist head coaches in instructing athletes in individual and team fundamentals, strategy and physical training necessary to realize a degree of individual and team success.They support the head coach in modeling and instructing in a way that will foster leadership, self-discipline, academic improvement, and a positive self-concept within each student-athlete.†† They also support the head coach in working within the framework of the goals of the school system, the policies and procedures of the IHSA, the Board of Education, Charleston High School, and the Apollo Conference, as outlined in the respective manuals, handbooks, by-laws, and sport regulations of these entities.


Athletic Trainer provides diagnosis and care for athletic injuries by coordinating efforts with team and family physicians to provide therapeutic rehabilitation in an attempt to expedite the athleteís return to competition while keeping the studentís mental and physical welfare as the top priority.The current athletic trainer is Jennifer Staskiewicz.She is available daily from 2:30 until 5:30 (unless there is a home athletic event at this time).


Trojan Booster Club President provides leadership for the functions of the Trojan Booster Club.He/She is not an employee of the school district, yet works with the athletic director in a partnership to help communicate and meet the needs of the athletic program.


Trojan Booster Club Parent Liaison Prior to the start of a season, head coaches will need to choose a parent volunteer to act as a liaison between the Booster Club and the head coach. Liaisonís may include but are not limited to: coordinate parent volunteers to work the concession stands/ticket takers, coordinate parent volunteers for Booster Club events, disperse Booster Club information/materials to head coaches, make suggestions to Booster Club for enlarging/expanding fundraising activities, etcÖ





Charleston High School is a member in good standing of the Illinois High School Association (IHSA), which serves as the authorized representative of the Department of Education in the supervision and control of the interscholastic athletic activities of high schools in the state.The purpose of the IHSA is to stimulate fair play, friendly rivalry, and good sportsmanship among contestants, schools, and communities throughout the state.As a member of the IHSA, Charleston High School agrees to abide by all of the IHSA by-laws, rules and regulations with special emphasis placed on those governing eligibility, age limitation, enrollment and attendance, scholarship, residence, transfers, recruiting, amateurism, and conduct character and discipline of athletes.The official publications of the IHSA can be accessed at; these publications shall serve as the instrument for periodic communication between the state association and its member schools.


Charleston High School is a member of the Apollo Conference.The conference was established to encourage member schools to improve their extra-curricular programs.The value of conference membership is derived from arranging of schedules, equalizing competition, conducting league meets, and general up-grading the activities program by adhering to conference standards and goals.Membership implies abiding by conference schedules, by-laws, rules and regulations, which can be accessed at The following schools are members of the Apollo Conference: Charleston, Effingham, Mt. Zion, Newton, Olney, Paris, Robinson, and Salem.The high school principal or designee shall represent Charleston High School at all conference meetings where official business is conducted.The athletic director will serve as the school representative in the day-to-day operations of the conference.Head coaches will be expected to attend all conference meetings that pertain to their sport.



Checklist of Responsibilities of Head Coaches


Pre-Season Responsibilities (before the first scheduled practice)

††† Attend an IHSA rules interpretation meeting (if applicable).The IHSA requires that coaches attend this meeting annually.

††† Plan and hold a coachesí meeting (if applicable).Invite employed and volunteer coaches to discuss expectations, roles, and goals.

††† Submit a volunteer coaching form for each volunteer coach to the athletic office.

††† Confirm that the programís published schedule corresponds to the programís contracted events (found in the athletic office).Notify the athletic secretary of any inconsistencies.

††† Submit transportation request forms (located in the athletic office) for the seasonís travel needs to the athletic secretary at least three weeks before the first scheduled contest that requires travel.School employees may not transport students in their personal vehicles.Any school employee who transports students in a district-owned vehicle must first have a chauffeurís physical on file at the central office (Kim Traub, 639-1019).

††† Secure needed keys through the athletic secretary.A key to the training room will only be issued if requested.Coaches are never to allow a student to use these keys, whether supervised or unsupervised.Keys are not to be passed from one coach to another via a student courier.Any key loss must be reported immediately to the athletic director.

††† Collaborate with other coaches who are in-season to determine facility space for practices.Weekday facility time slots are 3:30-5:30; 5:30-7:30; 7:30-9:30. Saturday facility time slots are also available.Practices are not to be held on Sundays or during times of student non-attendance.On school days, practices may not begin until 3:30p.m.Space priority will be determined first by in-season sport, then by varsity level, then by JV or fresh/soph level, then by freshmen level.Boys and girls teams of the same sport and level must receive equal time in primary facilities.Secure facility space through a face-to-face meeting with athletic secretary.

††† Plan and hold an organizational meeting for prospective participants and their parent(s)/guardian(s).Secure facility space (if needed) through a face-to-face meeting with the athletic secretary.Publicize the meeting by submitting an email to athletic secretary by 2:00 PM the day before to be included in the daily announcements.

††† Develop an accurate roster of participants.Create a directory of participantsí parentsí names, phone numbers, email addresses, home addresses, and other pertinent information (i.e. medical conditions that may impact the participantís training).Include uniform numbers, positions, heights, and weights (as applicable for public address announcer and media personnel).

††† Determine whether any participants are involved in other activities during the season. If so, meet with the other coach or sponsor to determine at which practice sessions and contests/events the student will attend. In the event a student is scheduled for a practice and a contest/performance on the same day or evening, the contest/performance should always take precedence with no penalty to the student in the activity in which he/she cannot participate. In the event a student is scheduled for activities of equal classification (i.e. two practices/rehearsals or two contests/performances occurring simultaneously) the student shall be allowed to make a choice without pressure or penalty from either of the coordinating adults of the two activities.

††† Submit a roster of participants to the athletic secretary at least two school days before the first scheduled practice.

††† Inventory the programís supplies and equipment. Follow the purchasing procedures and submit a purchase order (located in the athletic office) for equipment to the accounting secretary.Save enough funds from the programís allotted budget for end-of-season awards and banquet needs.Purchase orders for funds from the programís budget must be submitted by May 1.Coaches may request that uniforms and equipment be provided through funding from the Trojan Booster Club by submitting a Booster Club Request Form (located in the athletic office) to the athletic director.Coaches need to follow the uniform and equipment rotation schedule. Coaches who want to fundraise on behalf of their individual teams must clear the fundraiser in advance with the athletic director to ensure the efforts will not interfere with the Trojan Booster Club. If approved the coach must complete and submit a Fundraising Form to the athletic director and building principal.ĎOldí uniforms and equipment can be disposed of by requesting that they be declared Ďsurplusí district property by the Board of Education.Send such a request to the athletic director in writing.Once the Board declares items as surplus, they can be donated to the Trojan Booster Club, given to former or current participants, or otherwise disposed of properly.

††† Plan and hold a captainís meeting (recommended). Invite captains and assistant coaches to discuss expectations, roles, and goals.

††† Plan and hold a parent meeting.Secure facility space (if needed) through a face-to-face meeting with the athletic secretary.The overall objective of a coach-parent meeting is to improve parentsí understanding of youth sports.Plan for an hour-long meeting, but be prepared to go a little longer if needed.The meeting does not have to be elaborate to be successful.However, the importance of being well prepared and organized cannot be overemphasized.To improve organizational quality, a written program outline should be developed and followed.The meeting should be scheduled as early in the season as possible Ė the sooner the better.A letter of invitation should be used to notify parents. Include brief statements about the objective of the meeting, its importance, and information about the date, time, location, and directions. A team roster, with addresses and telephone numbers, should be sent along with the letter. Follow-up telephone calls are recommended to remind parents about the meeting. Secure a parent to serve as the teamís liaison to the Trojan Booster Club and report that parentís name to the athletic secretary.

††† Ensure that all volunteer coachesí paperwork is on file for the District and school.


In-Season Responsibilities (from first practice to last contest)

††† Issue uniforms and equipment to participants.

††† Report roster changes to the athletic secretary within 48 hours of any changes.

††† Submit required reports on the IHSA website.Click on the Schools Center link and use your IHSA password that was provided during the annual coachesí meeting.

††† Keep accurate records of equipment issuance.

††† Obtain locks (if needed for sophomores only) from the staff member of the P.E. department who is responsible for issuing locks.

††† Refer special student concerns to appropriate school officials/professionals:

         Medical illness: contact parent/guardian

         Psychological: contact a guidance counselor

         Behavioral: refer to the CHS student handbook and extracurricular code of conduct

         Alcohol/Drug: contact counselor, athletic director, and parent/guardian; refer to the CHS student handbook and extracurricular code of conduct

         Child advocacy: all school employees are federally mandated to report suspected child abuse.You must call IDCFS Child Abuse Hotline at 800-252-2873 AND notify the building principal IN PERSON that you made such a call to DCFS and why you did so.

         Any student violation of the extracurricular code of conduct must be reported in writing to the athletic director as soon as the coach is made aware of a situation.

††† Maintain locker room, gym, field house, and facility security by locking all doors and turning off all lights to each facility after its use. Do not leave lights on and doors unlocked; assuming that another team will be arriving soon.

††† Plan for and report to the athletic secretary by email any necessary early releases from school/class for students to participate in a contest.Early releases may be requested only for contests that require travel.Include the name and location of the event, the participantsí names, and release time.When determining the release time, work backwards forty-five minutes from the contestís start time, subtract time for travel to the contest, and subtract ten minutes for students to get from their classes to the bus.The athletic secretary will forward the notice to all staff via email.

††† Report contest results to local media personnel/conference personnel as soon as possible after each event.

         Charleston Times-Courier††††††††††††††††††††††† 238-6856††††††††††

         Coles County Leader†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 253-2358††††††††††

         WEIU-FM†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† 581-6116††††††††††

         Terry Roche (Robinson H.S.)††††† ††††††††††† (618)

††† Enforce participant eligibility.Inform participants and their parents when participants become academically ineligible.Review the academic eligibility requirements with participants and provide resources for academic improvement.

††† Assist athletes in the college recruitment process.Refer to the NCAA website for additional information.

††† Report cancelled away contests to the athletic director immediately (639-5026 or 549-2030).

††† Within 24 hours of an injury, report participantsí injuries as a result of practicing/competing to the athletic trainer.

††† Within 24 hours of an accident, report participantsí injuries as a result of accidents by submitting a complete accident report form to the schoolís health office.Immediately make a contact to the studentís parent/guardian.

††† As needed and prior to traveling, submit a request for funding of additional travel expenditures.Additional travel expenses may be paid by the district as follows:meals/lodging for a regular season tournament (if sufficient funding is provided to our school as a result of attending the tournament); meals/lodging for IHSA state-finals contests.Meal and lodging expenses for other trips will not be paid from district funds.Overnight trips may be approved for contests in which over 200 miles of travel is required and where the event begins at 10:00 a.m. or before.

††† Plan an awards banquet.Some coaches seek a committee of parent volunteers to organize the event.Report the eventís date and setting to the athletic secretary.If school facility space is needed, secure facility space through a face-to-face meeting with athletic secretary.


Post-Season Responsibilities (after the last contest)

††† Implement a procedure to ensure that each participant returns all uniforms and equipment that was provided by the school.

††† Keep an accurate record of returned uniforms and equipment and report lost or damaged equipment to the athletic director. Equipment and uniform inventory should be completed prior to and after the season.

††† Ensure that all equipment is washed, repaired, and safely stored; make arrangements for receipt of equipment during the off-season, if sent to a commercial repair company.

††† Vacate locker rooms at the conclusion of the programís season.Ensure that programís areas are returned to pre-season condition and ready for the next programís season.

††† Organize your programís trophy case.Conference and state seriesí awards should be prominently displayed and orderly.Remove non-first place and/or outdated awards so that the trophy case has a non-cluttered look.Only Apollo Conference or State series trophies should be displayed in the trophy case.

††† Submit a list of participant awards to the athletic secretary (varsity letter winners, final roster).

††† Order special awards for an awards banquet.

††† Submit a list of special awards to the local media after the programís awards banquet.

††† Submit an Annual Sport Report to the athletic secretary within 15 days after the programís last contest. Include your one, three, and five year Booster Club requests with this document. You may also include a self-assessment, parent assessments, and athlete assessments with your report.

††† Submit any requested changes for next seasonís schedule to the athletic director within 15 days after the programís last contest.


Transportation of Student-Athletes/Participants

††† All student-athletes/participants must be accompanied by the coach or Charleston CUSD #1 approved supervisor in any contest or event that is sponsored by Charleston CUSD #1, the Illinois High School Association, or any other State or National sanctioned body in which the student-athlete/participant is representing Charleston High School, Charleston Middles School, or Charleston CUSD #1.

††††† Students must ride with the team unless previous arrangements have been made. Students who choose to ride to or from a contest with a parent must have signed parental consent form turned in to the coach prior to the student athlete being released to a parent.

Extra Curricular Employment


Certification - The Board of Education believes that each extra curricular program should be under the supervision of a certified faculty member.At times, however, certified faculty members are not available to coach a program during a season.After an effort has been made to secure the services of a certified faculty member, non-faculty coaches may be employed.


Qualifications of Coaches - Athletic coaches shall be regularly certified to teach in the schools of Illinois and be:

(a) teaching or supervising classroom activity at least two periods daily in Charleston High School; or

(b) employed full-time in any elementary or junior high school in the legal attendance area of Charleston High School; or

(c) an assistant teacher, resource aide, lay supervisor or other paraprofessional who is employed at least half-time per day in Charleston High School; or

(d) a full time teacher in any elementary district, any of whose territory is a part of Charleston High Schoolís district; or

(e) teaching full time, within the provisions of the Illinois School Code, in a member high school or in a vocational or special education cooperative in which Charleston High School participates; or

(f) a retired teacher from Charleston High School.


If Charleston High School is unable to fill a coaching position under the above terms, it may employ to serve as a coach a regularly certified teacher who is not otherwise employed in Charleston High School.


If Charleston High School is unable to fill an assistant coaching position under the above terms, it may employ to serve as an assistant coach an individual who possesses a Substitute Teacherís Certificate.


If Charleston High School is unable to fill a coaching position under the above terms, it may employ to serve as a coach an individual who holds a minimum of a bachelorís degree from a college or university, provided the individual has satisfactorily completed a coach training program approved by the IHSA Board of Directors.


If Charleston High School is unable to fill a head or assistant coaching position under the above terms, it may employ to serve as a head or assistant coach, an individual who has satisfactorily completed a coach training program approved by the IHSA Board of Directors.


Students in teacher-training institutions may be assigned to assist with the coaching of athletic teams in Charleston High School as a part of their practice teaching course provided they are under the direct supervision of an individual who is qualified to coach under the above provisions.


An individual approved to coach in Charleston High School under these provisions may, upon completion of one year in the approved coaching assignment, continue to coach in that position in Charleston High School for subsequent years without renewal of IHSA approval, provided the individual continues to meet these requirements and is reemployed annually by the local Board of Education.


c.†††††††† Extra-Curricular Assignment Procedures - The following regulations will be in force when coaching/sponsor vacancies arise:


1)†††††††† The administration shall survey the coaching/sponsor staff in February of each year to determine coaches/sponsors intentions for the following year.


2)†††††††† At the March/April Board of Education meeting, recommendations for coaching/sponsor assignments for all Fall and Winter sports will be made.Coaches of Spring sports will be notified in May that contracts for Spring sports will be awarded in June/July after completion and evaluation of their current season.


3)†††††††† When vacancies develop or new positions are added to the coaching/sponsorship staff, the following actions shall be taken:

a) The administration shall post the position to determine whether currently assigned staff members have interest in the positions.

b) Once interested candidates are identified, the administration, in consultation with the head coach/sponsor, shall determine whether the interested persons possess the minimum qualifications necessary to perform the responsibilities of the positions.

c) The administration shall then notify interested candidates whether or not further consideration will be extended based upon individual qualifications.


4)†††††††† Interviews will be conducted by building administration, in consultation with the appropriate staff, and will recommend the best qualified candidate(s) to the superintendent. Consideration given to the following:

a) Certified faculty assigned in the building in which the coaching vacancy exists†††††

b) Certified faculty assigned to a building other than where the vacancy exists

††††††††††††††††††††††† c) Substitute teachers

††††††††††††††††††††††† d) Non-faculty school employees

e) Individuals who are not employed by the school district in any capacity, such as college students, residents of the community, etc.

Note:individuals employed as coaches/sponsors from categories above, will be compensated, assigned and evaluated in the same way as all other coaching positions.


5)                  If a teacher at one building is assigned to a coaching position in another, the principal is authorized to make a reasonable effort to schedule the persons teaching assignment, either on a temporary or permanent basis, to assist the coach in performing the athletic responsibilities.However, the individualís teaching assignment shall not be unduly impaired by this scheduling arrangement, and it must be understood that such arrangements can be made only in a limited number of situations.


6)                  When a coach/sponsor is assigned to a position in a building other than the level of the teaching assignment, the coaching/sponsor assignment will be reviewed on an annual basis by the administration and building principals involved. The purpose of this reconsideration will be to determine whether it is desirable to continue the coaching/sponsor assignment which causes scheduling difficulties at both levels. Factors to consider in this matter include the following:

††††††††††††††††††††††† a)†††††††† the level of competition being coached,

††††††††††††††††††††††† b)†††††††† normal practice and game times, and

††††††††††††††††††††††† c)†††††††† availability of other candidates.


d.†††††††† Terms of Coaching Contract - All coaching assignments shall be for one school year.A supplemental contract shall be executed according to the adopted salary schedule.


1) ††††††† Each head coach/sponsor shall schedule a conference with his/her athletic administrator no later than 30 calendar days after the final contest of the season to evaluate the program.


2)                  The coach/sponsor shall evaluate assistant coaches/sponsors in writing to the principal and athletic administrator.


3)                  The principal has the responsibility of recommending to the superintendent coaching assignments for the next school year.


4)†††††††† Subject to requirements of law, the Board of Education has final authority for employing or discontinuing employment of coaching personnel.


e.††††††††† Non-faculty (Walk-on) and Volunteer Coaches Guidelines


1)†††††††† Coaching positions that are filled by a person who is not a certified faculty member of the Charleston Community Unit School District present some unique problems in the administration of that program, namely:

a)†††††††† Recruiting, selecting, orienting and supervising non-faculty coaches/extra-curricular sponsors.

b)†††††††† Communication between the athletic administrator and the coach/sponsor.

c)†††††††† Limited school day and interpersonal relationship between the player and the coach.

d)†††††††† Philosophical difference concerning academics, program goals, bench decorum and public relations with parents and fans.

e)†††††††† Time conflicts between that coaches/sponsors occupation and coaching/sponsorship responsibilities

f)††††††††† Filing reports with the administration and collecting, care and storage of equipment are not a priority of the non-faculty coach/sponsor.


2)†††††††† The non-faculty coach/sponsor needs to place special emphasis on the philosophies, goals and objective of the Charleston Community Unit District #1 by

††††††††††††††††††††††† a)†††††††† Meeting the qualifications required;

b)                  Meeting with the administration prior to the start of the season for orientation/indoctrination in the policies and regulation contained in the extra curricular handbook.(All non-faculty coaches must attend this meeting prior to the start of their sport season);

c)†††††††† Calling the athletic office or administrative daily or as determined on a prearranged basis with the administration;

d)†††††††† Attending all program staff meetings or holding periodic conferences with the head coach, athletic administrator or administration;

e)†††††††† Following all procedures specified in the respective coaches /sponsors job description;

f)††††††††† Setting aside time before or after practices to meet individually with team members;

g)†††††††† Conferring with the athletic director/administration during last week of season to discuss the awards banquet, end of season reports, returning of keys and the collection, cleaning, repair and storage of equipment;

h)†††††††† Being loyal to the school, its traditions, and supporting all of the programs by attending as many athletic contest as possible;

††††††††††††††††††††††† i)††††††††† Establishing communication with parents and athletes.


3)†††††††† Volunteer Coaches must have appropriate paperwork on file at both the Central and Athletic Offices prior to contact with student athletes. Forms include but are not limited to:

††††††††††††††††††††††† a) ††††††† Illinois State Police Criminal Background and Fingerprinting form

b)†††††††† Volunteer Coachesí Form (must be signed by Athletic Director, Head Coach, and Building Principal

c) ††††††† Proof of completion of IHSA approved coaching certification course or a four-year college degree

††††††††††††††††††††††† d)†††††††† Medical Physical Examination


f.††††††††† Non-discrimination Policy - It is the policy of this district to provide, through a positive and effective affirmative action program, equal opportunities for employment, retention and advancement of all people regardless of age, color, creed, national origin, political affiliation or gender.


The purpose of this policy is


1)†††††††† To provide all students with an opportunity to relate, cooperate and learn with members of various racial and ethnic backgrounds and to increase knowledge and enhance multi-cultural understandings;


2)†††††††† To provide equal opportunities to all students for participation in all of the educational programs under the direction of the school system, including extra-curricular activities;


3)†††††††† To ensure equal opportunities for the employment, promotion and transfer of all persons. The Board of Education encourages all personnel in the school district to assist in the accomplishment of this goal through their personal commitment to the concept of equal opportunity for all people regardless of race, color, creed, national origin, political affiliation or gender.


Therefore, the Board of Education establishes a program of affirmative action to ensure that all personnel policies relevant to recruitment, employment and promotions of employees of the school district will provide equal opportunities for all persons in order to achieve these goals.